第十六讲 皇家88手机客户端简单句、并列句和复

2019-10-18 作者:考试   |   浏览(91)

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第十六讲 轻便句、并列句和复合句

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一。考试大纲须求

  语法知识点1

试验大纲供给考生能准确推断句子的项目、深入分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选取合适的连年词语、判定主语和从句的没有错语序、得当选拔主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。教导的比较级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+ as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你同样学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难题句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等高校统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的试验首要回顾:句子的结构、连词的选料、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习于旧贯用语和卓越的句式应用。

  2.only指导的倒装句型:only +状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  独有不辞辛勤、正直,一位在生活中技艺打响。 

1.轻巧易行句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  唯有那位女孩子知道怎么着解那道题。

① 句子连串两种分类法

  3.wish指点的设想语气:wish 后边的从句,今世表与事实相反的事态,或表示未来不太大概完毕的心愿时,其宾语从句的动词格局为: 

依照句子的用途,希伯来语的句子可分:汇报句(断定、否定)、疑问句(平日、特殊、接纳、反意)、祈使句、咋舌句等四种。

  ⑴代表对现行反革命事态的设想:从句动词用过去式或过去实行式表示,be 的千古式用were.   

依据句子的结构可分:轻便句并列句和复合句两种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    作者盼望知晓这些难点的答案。(缺憾不精通。) 

轻便易行句唯有三个主语或并列主语和几个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分局(;)把多少个或多个以上的简单句连在一齐构成。复合句:含有一个或一个上述从句的句子。复合句包涵:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等二种。

  ⑵表示对过去事态的杜撰:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 并列排在一条线句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  作者后悔不应当浪费这么多时间。( 实际瓜时经浪费掉了。) 

仁同一视句指把三个同样主要的语句连接在一道,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

  ⑶表示对今后的主观意愿:谓语动词格局为“would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形”。在这里种意况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能够长期以来,因为主句的主语所希望的从句动作能还是无法完成,决定于从句主语的姿态或希望(非动作名词除此之外) 。 

代表采用涉及常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能终止。 

代表转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,可以表示供给,平常意味着说话人的不适或不满。

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  小编梦想你安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it方式宾语:和it 作情势主语同样,  我们常用it 来作格局宾语, 把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 这种处境愈加出现在带复合宾语的语句中。

(1)状语从句的分类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他表明她不会投降。 

状语从句平日修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由附属连词辅导,附属连词在从句中不担负句子成分。依照状语从句所表明的两样含义和意义,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、指标、结果、妥协、对比、情势等状语从句。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的辞藻

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。大家越惊惧困难,困难就能变得越强盛。

岁月状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.一……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第二遍,last time最终二次,every/each time每一趟,the next time后一次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

由来状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:平时难点句做宾语,引入if或whether

地址状语从句:where,wherever(无论那里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗可是状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 缘由状语从句:since引导的

准则状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如若;只要),in case (万一); on condition that(即便), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

指标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

正如状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 指点。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

格局状语从句:as(正如;依照),as if/as though (好像)指引。

  4. If设想条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中常见选取陈述语序。不过,在底下的三种情景下,状语从句多使用倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接妥洽状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词常常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。例如:

  6.状语从句轻松(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从简单采取分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的四个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句采纳部分倒装语序。例如:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb 表示“前边多少个意况适用于子孙后代”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who辅导的限定性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第叁个分句接纳局地倒装语序,即把第四个分句用陈说语序。举例:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教大家塞尔维亚共和国语的要命女孩吧?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一齐指点迁就状语从句,句子接纳陈说语序。比如:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the +相比较级the+比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子如故采用陈诉语序。例如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 代表 “既然”。与 since 的分歧之处在于,now that 引出的必须是三个新面世的真情或状态,要是还是照旧,和千古对待并从未成形,则毫不 now that 指引。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把具备材质都希图好了,我们相应及时起首这项新的干活。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态常常遵从以下的法规:

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 教导的从句纵然放在句末,且前面有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for 来替代。但假诺不是验证间接原因,而是各类状态再说估计,就只可以用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他明日没来,因为她患有了。

①象征“同期”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等接二连三的小时状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。举例:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 缘由状从:as 的用法。例句:The 星洲 passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“未来”意义的规范、时间和退让状语从句中多用平时未来时,而主句用常常今后时,被称作“主将从现”。举个例子:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since辅导的岁月状语从句多用日常过去时,而满含since从句的主句平日用前日到位时。举例:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 独资化的助益在于能推动互相竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第多少个分句中过去产生时,第三个分句用通常过去时。比如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 指点的状语从句中,假如表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用平日过去时或过去实现时。举例:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的轻便

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同期,被动结构的状语从句,可粗略与主句一样的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动协会的状语从句,可粗略与主句同样的主语和助动词,保留连词+未来分词。举个例子:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用来重申组织中

状语从句作为被重申有个别用以重申协会时,一律用It is/was …that…,不能够用when代替that。句子用陈说语序。注意:当重申Not until +时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再选拔倒装语序。举个例子:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

据守在句中的功用,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句八种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不肩负成分,一时可被总结;表示“是或不是”用whether,唯有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if替代。Whether和if在从句中不担当成分。假设从句贫乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用一连代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;假如从句缺少状语,用一连副词when, where, how, why。

鉴于总是代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充任句子成分,而延续词whether 和if(是还是不是),在从句中不担当句子成分,只起一连作用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在以下两种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”, should可回顾。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人感叹的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(建议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚定不移), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐), request(供给,须要), demand(须求),require(供给,须求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”, should可粗略。

③ 在蕴藏advice, order, demand, proposal(提出), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可粗略。

④在局地意味傻眼、意志力等心境色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should +have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。譬喻:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的分类

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句两种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和范围效用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起互补和表明表明效果与利益。平常限制性定语从句与先行词之间从未逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开分离。

(2)定语从句的关联代词和涉及副词

定语从句经常由关系代词和涉及副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和关系副词必需放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连日来先行词和从句的功力,同不经常间在从句中又出任句子成分。

(3)关系代词和涉嫌副词的用法:

①超越行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②超过行词为物或任何句马时用which,可作主语或宾语;③开始时期词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的界别

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,乃至不合逻辑。举例:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完全)

② 非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不细瞧,去掉定从句,意思还是平安无事。形式上用逗号隔断,不可能that用指导。比如:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的乐趣仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的几个难点

①用that而不用 which的情事:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有参天级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。比如:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的气象:教导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的情致;用于介词 的前面+ 关系代词。举例:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same +名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。譬喻:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可代表主句的剧情,携带的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句早前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。譬喻: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的分别

当主句和从句语义一致时,用as指引;反之,用which来指导非限制性定语从句;当非限制订语从句为否定意义时,常用which指引。比如:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④事关代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数依旧用复数应由先行词决定。譬如:

第十六讲 皇家88手机客户端简单句、并列句和复合句。The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 指引定语从句的涉及副词不常能够用“介词 + which”来代替。比方:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只好用which和whom,且不能够轻便;倘使介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可粗略。比如:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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